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Did Jesus Give Up The Ghost OR His Spirit?

John 19:30(KJV) When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost(Greek - pneûma).

John 19:30(ASV and other translations) ... he bowed his head, and gave up his spirit(Greek - pneûma).

Strong's Greek Dictionary G4151 πνεῦμα pneûmapnyoo'-mah; by analogy or figuratively, a spirit, i.e. (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, demon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy Spirit
KJV Translation(s):--ghost, life, spirit(-ual, -ually), wind. 

The KJV NT Used G4151 358 Times, as Spirit(231x),  Ghost(91x),  spirits(32x),  wind(1x),  spiritually(1x),  spiritual(1x),  life(1x).

Notice Strong's definition for the Greek word "pneûma". While it is sometimes used figuratively, it is never used as a disembodied living being, which is what we typically label as a ghost. Sadly, the King James version(KJV) of the Bible used the English word "ghost" 91 times as a translation of this Greek word.

Fortunately, in the English(England) revision(ERV) of the KJV in 1885 replaced most of the "ghost" words with "spirit". Then, in 1901, the American(USA) revision(ASV) of the KJV, all of the "ghost" words were replaced with "Spirit", which, in my opinion is much more in agreement with the Bible's use of the Greek word "pneûma".

So, why is this important? Looking at the two translations above, we see the difference of what Jesus "gave up" when He died. In the KJV, it was "the ghost". In the ASV, it was "his spirit". if it was the ghost, then it is easier for false teachers to convince their students that this was a disembodied living being, which would also mean that, while Christ's body was dead, He was still alive without a body. This is spiritualism, which is widely taught to be what happens to humans when their bodies die. But, is that true?  For now, suffice it to say that, "... the living know that they shall die: but the dead know not anything..."(Ecclesiastes 9:5). More about that here => http://sidnash.org/docs/LifeAndDeath.html .

There is another Greek word that really does refer to a disembodied spirit, that is only used 2 times in the Bible => Strong's Greek Dictionary G5326 φάντασμα phántasmafan'-tas-mah; from G5324; (properly concrete) a (mere) show ("phantasm"), i.e. spectre

Definition of phantasm => "That which appears to the mind; the image of an external object; hence, an idea or notion. It usually denotes a vain or airy appearance; something imagined."

Definition of spectre or specter => "An apparition; the appearance of a person who is dead; a ghost."

Here are the two texts from the Bible =>

  1. Matthew 14:26 And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a ghost(Greek - phántasma); and they cried out for fear.
  2. Mark 6:49 but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost(Greek - phántasma), and cried out;

Here we see that the disciples thought they saw a disembodied spirit, but it was actually Jesus Himself.

I also find it interesting that Mark and Luke both used a different Greek work for when Jesus "gave up the ghost". Here are the texts:

  1. Mark 15:37 And Jesus uttered a loud voice, and gave up the ghost. ... 39 And when the centurion, who stood by over against him, saw that he so gave up the ghost(Greek - ekpnéō), he said, Truly this man was the Son of God.
  2. Luke 23:46 And Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said this, gave up the ghost(Greek - ekpnéō).

Strong's Greek Dictionary G1606 ἐκπνέω ekpnéōek-pneh'-o; to expire

I wonder why John used "pneûma" rather than "ekpnéō"... I really don't know...

To Be Continued at a later date...

Desiring to live by every word that comes from the mouth of Jehovah (Deut8:3; Matt4:4)

-Sid Nash: 12/02/2023. Latest version: http://sidnash.org/docs/GaveUpGhost.html